Different Types of Plumbing and Drainage Systems Used in Buildings

types plumbing and drainage systems

The construction of a building must be preceded by proper planning of the water supply for its occupants through a proper plumbing and drainage system. A well-established network and a robust system of proper plumbing and drainage pipes are very important to maintain a good healthy environment in the building.  Every system has to be well designed without a loophole. To build a sound plumbing system, you must ensure the quality of the pipes should be good. Along with the water distribution pipes, the plumbing system of a building includes soil, waste, and vent pipes. The building’s drainage and sewer system should be connected with a good network. Mainly three components make a plumbing system and drainage system of a building robust, the pipes and fittings, drainage, and the fixtures. A good plumbing system will enhance the life of a building. If a plumbing system of a building is damaged, it can cause damage to the house, ultimately leading to rot and mold on walls and floors.     


Types of plumbing systems in building  

There are three types of Plumbing systems. Potable water, sanitary, and stormwater system. Each of these plays a vital role in keeping the city clean and hygienic. All the residential, industrial, and commercial buildings have each of these plumbing systems installed. The plumbing system comprises the entire system of fittings and appliances that are used in water supply and drainage 

The plumbing system of pipes and fixtures that are installed in a building for the purpose of distribution of drinkable water and removal of waterborne wastes is entirely different from the water and sewage systems present in the building. There are four types of categories considered in the plumbing system.  

  1. Single stack system: This is a high-capacity pump lift to transfer wastewater or slurries even against a gravity drain.  
  2. Partially vented single stack system: This is a simple and essential form of plumbing system amongst all the plumbing systems. The system of pipes carries waste from bathrooms, sinks, and washbasins from the water closets. This is connected to a single pipe.   
  3. One pipe system: This plumbing system uses a single stack, where the vent pipe receives connections from all the traps.  
  4. Two pipes system: This system uses separate pipes for connecting the water closets and for the discharge of washbasins and bath sinks etc.     

Type of drainage systems in buildings  


The drainage system comprises a well-arranged network of drainage pipes, and this system is used to get rid of human waste. Drainage systems pipes which are generally used are copper, CPVC, and HDPE pipes. These are made of plastic which makes them rust-free and lightweight. They have low maintenance and easy installations. These pipes are pocket friendly and economical.   


Surface Drainage System:

This system removes excess water from the surface of the land. This is important for the removal of extra water from the surface of the ground which is done with the help of improved natural channels or constructed drains. A surface drainage system increases productivity on land where a high-water table or soil moisture conditions prevent the movement of water from the root zone. Surface systems are further classified into Regular Surface systems and Controlled Surface systems, the details of which are discussed below:   

  • A regular surface drainage system starts to function when there is excess rainfall or irrigation operated entirely by gravity.   
  • A controlled surface drainage system consists of check gates placed in the surroundings of flat basins like those in flatlands.  


Subsurface Drainage System:

This system lowers the water table and helps in the removal of excess water through open ditches. During wet times the water table gets lowered so as to keep the root zone unsaturated. This system can again be categorized into two types which are relief drains and interceptor drains. Relief drains are used to lower the water table for the purpose of serving vegetation and also for improving the surface water. 


Slope Drainage System:

It is built in such a way that it allows water to flow in a downward direction. This is done through fine quality pipes with a downward direction. The downward movement of the pipe allows the water to go down swiftly without blockage. The best solution for a slope system is to slope the finish grade away from the house or building so that the surface water can drain out. The minimum slope that is required for the water to run off is 1%. The floor must be sloped to the drain at a tolerance of only 1% – 2% grade. On an excellent slope system, polymer concrete underlayment will be a cost-effective alternative.   


Downspout & Gutter Drainage System:

The gutter system consists of two parts: 

  • Gutter channels that run horizontally along the roof edge.  
  • A downspout that carries the collected water down to grade level.  

The Gutter downspout is a vertical pipe that is attached and helps the water to move out of the gutters away from the building, ensuring that all the waste is separated safely through the system. The downspout also redirects water and safely leads it away from the building toward the designated drainage area. If they are clear of clogs and properly installed, they will protect the building’s foundation from water damage. Downspouts are often directed onto surfaces such as driveways which send water directly into the streets when it rains. Downspouts are also connected to a pipe that connects either directly to the sanitary sewer or storms into the drain system. On average, a gutter needs a downspout around every 30-40 feet. 


Benefits of Drainage System in Buildings  

It prevents water accumulation which can cause flooding. It helps direct the water away from the building and helps to stop the accumulation of water, which can encourage mosquitos to breed. A good system in a building helps in the removal of access water in any area which is affected by floodwater or rainwater. It serves the purpose of removing wastewater effectively; this system is called a sewer system. The benefit of a drainage system can be seen when accumulated water is flushed out along with the waste in a systematic order and a strong network that helps to get rid of unwanted clogging, which results in maintaining a healthy condition in a building.  

  1. Provides a better environment for plant growth.  
  2. Helps to increase microbial decomposition.  
  3. Improves the physical properties of the soil.  
  4. Maintains proper soil temperature.   
  5. Enhances better root system. 
  6. It helps in the removal of toxic substances. 
  7. May increase the life of the building. 
  8. It helps to prevent water-borne diseases. 


Features of UPVC pipes  

  1. High resistance to corrosion  
  2. High durability in all circumstances  
  3. Safe for drinking water 
  4. Non-toxic and does not cause contamination  
  5. Uninflammable  
  6. Resistant to internal and external pressure  
  7. Maintain consistent water flow because of its super smooth surface  
  8. High electric resistance, therefore suitable for electrical phone and wiring cables.  
  9. Have heat insulation quality 
  10. Easy to install and maintain  
  11. Protects the pipe from freezing 
  12.  Low cost, compared to other types of pipes.  
  13. Environment friendly  
  14. Lead-free free  
  15. UV stabilized  
  16. No bacterial growth  
  17. Simple and leakproof joint  
  18. Designed to last for ages  
  19. Serve temperature up to 60 degrees C  


Why choose Topline Industries? 

Topline Industries is the leading drainage pipes manufacturer with an excellent reputation in manufacturing and supplying drainage pipes that are known for their strength and durability. If you are looking for a pipe manufacturer in India, you can end your search here. We are the market leader in pipe manufacturers for UPVC pipes and sewage solutions. Our products are highly resilient and suitable for all kinds of conditions. The pipes supplied by us have varied specifications for serving the v needs of customers. Additionally, the durability of our product ensures longevity, a major condition in the underground system. We are the most traditional plumbing pipe manufacturers to provide extensive duration and reliability with great material to be used for hot and cold water, and it can be maintained easily.  



UPVC pipes and fittings are durable and tough to handle any climatic and natural condition. The UPVC drainage pipes are manufactured with fine grains, which results in zero deposits inside the pipe, which triggers the smooth flow of water. These drainage pipes make the drainage and plumbing system easy and hygienic. These pipes weigh less but still, they are strong enough to work effectively. Its durability and pocket-friendly characteristics lead its way to being the highly recommended product for plumbing and drainage systems across the nation. UPVC drainage and plumbing pipes are the premium quality products available in the market. UPVC pipes are manufactured with the latest technology, which ensures long-lasting and durable nature. UPVC fittings are used in the connection of a group of pipes to a single supply line. UPVC pine and drainage systems are not affected by chemical attacks. These pipes are manufactured especially according to ISO standard sizes which can be fitted at any place.   

UPVC pipes and fittings have passed the creep rupture strength – internal pressure test and resistance to rapid crack propagation test, which specifies a method for determination of the resistance to constant internal pressure at a constant temperature. UPVC plumbing and drainage system are the best solutions for all types of buildings.  

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